How to View Jupiter and Saturn’s Once-Every-20-Years Conjunction Over Arizona

A busy year for skywatchers – including supermoons, meteor showers, and cometary flybys – is about to conclude with a rare sight.

On Monday, December 21, Jupiter and Saturn will get close enough together in the night sky that they’ll appear to form a single planet. It’s known as a “great conjunction” by astronomers and is a unique celestial event that occurs once every 20 years or so.

This particular conjunction will be even more special, and not just because it will happen during the winter solstice. According to astronomers, Jupiter and Saturn will appear to be less than a 10th of a degree apart, the closest they’ve been in almost 400 years. (The last time it occurred was in 1623 during the age of Galileo.)

As Renu Malhotra, a planetary sciences professor at the University of Arizona, told the New York Times recently, the alignment of the two gas giants is a bit of celestial magnificence that’s worth seeing.

“It’s a very elegant astronomical event to watch in the night sky,” Malhotra says. “It’s a very romantic event to see these planets approaching each other.”

Claude Haynes of the East Valley Astronomy Club says it’s also a unique enough experience that any skywatcher should see at least once in their lifetime.

“It’s so rare and is one of those things you can check off your ‘I saw this’ list,” he says.

The event will take place during the span of an hour or so during the early evening. And thanks to the brightness of both planets in the night sky, you won’t need binoculars or a telescope (although both would help). If you’d like to view this planetary ballet unfold, here’s everything you’ll need to know, including when and where to look.

So What’s Causing The Great Conjunction to Happen?

While Jupiter and Saturn are approximately 403 million miles apart, from our perspective here on Earth, their orbits appear to be in close alignment with each other this time of year.

When Does the Conjunction Take Place?

As we mentioned, it will happen just after sundown on the evening of Monday, December 21. Astronomers recommend looking between 5 and 7 p.m. when both Jupiter and Saturn will be visible. If you’d like a preview of their close encounter, they’ll be getting in nearer in proximity to one another each night leading up to the event.

Where In the Sky Should You Look?

In the southwestern sky, basically. Both planets will be relatively close to the horizon (approximately 10 degrees) but will be viewable during the two-hour window.

What Will the Viewing Conditions Be Like?

The current forecast calls for clear skies every night leading up to December 21 with almost zero clouds. The moon will also be visible in the southwestern sky, butsince it’s in the midst of the first quarter of its monthly phase, its light won’t be enough to drown out the brightest of stars and planets, including Jupiter and Saturn.

Where In Arizona Should You Go to View the Conjunction?

It will be viewable from almost anywhere there’s a clear, unobstructed view of the southwestern horizon. That said, as with any sort of skywatching, being in a place that’s as dark as possible would be best. In other words, you’ll want to head for the outskirts of town and away from the vast light pollution, says Pete Turner of the Phoenix Astronomical Society. “If you’re in downtown Phoenix, you’re going to have a tougher time,” he says.

Are There Any Apps You Can Use?

Yes. Most of the skywatching and stargazing apps available for iOS and Android – including Star Chart, SkySafari, and Solar Walk – can be used to locate the planets.

Will You Need a Telescope or Binoculars?

Not necessarily, but they’d help. While the conjunction will be visible with the naked eye, anyone with a pair of binoculars or even a low-power telescope should be able to make out the features of either planet when viewing them.

Are Any Local Viewing Events Happening?

Yes. ASU Marston Exploration Theater will host an online viewing event and live presentation via Zoom Webinar starting at 5:30 p.m. on Monday evening featuring local amateur astronomers. It’s a free event but advance registration is required since space is limited.

The Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff will also offer a virtual viewing of the conjunction beginning at 5 p.m. on Monday through its website and YouTube channel.

What Does This Mean From an Astrology Perspective?

If you’re a believer in astrology, the great conjunction could be a harbinger of great change in the world. Valley astrologist Brenda Black tells Phoenix New Times that the cosmic event is linked to upheaval in the world.

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“The last time a [great conjunction] happened was in 2000 right after the dot-com bubble burst. The one before was in 1981 around the time of a big recession,” Black says. “So that means that we could and should expect some big changes in the next few months.”

And because the conjunction is happening during the Winter Solstice, Black says that more people may participate in various sorts of ceremonies or rituals.

“It’s [an event] that might heighten or enhance the experience,” she says. YMMV.

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